HIV Transmission from a Mother to Child

By 2014, HIV prevalence was reduced to 0.4 percent through a successful prevention program. However, in 2015 a massive outbreak of HIV occurred, stemming mostly from Roka. The cause is thought to be the re-use of syringes by an unlicensed doctor working in the region, who has since been jailed.
According to the NCHADS report Estimations and Projections of HIV/AIDS in Cambodia, 2011–2015, the prevalence of HIV among the general population aged 15–49 years was estimated to be 0.7 percent in 2013. HIV prevalence in Cambodia has been steadily declining for over a decade, which is due in part to targeted HIV prevention activities and widespread coverage of anti-retroviral treatment (ART), which reduces the viral load of people on ART, decreasing their chances of transmitting the virus to others.

The report shows that HIV incidence has also been decreasing among both adults and children. In 2013, an estimated 1,093 adults aged 15+ years and 46 children aged 0‐14 years were newly infected with HIV. HIV incidence is projected to decrease even further for both adults and children in the coming years.

The trends for AIDS‐related mortality differ for adults versus children. AIDS deaths among children aged 0–14 years were projected to continue declining up to 2015 and perhaps beyond. However, AIDS‐related deaths among adults were projected to increase slightly and plateau after the steep decline before 2010.

Key Points
• Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the spread of HIV from an HIV-infected woman to her child during pregnancy, childbirth (also called labor and delivery), or breastfeeding. Mother-to-child transmission is the most common way that children become infected with HIV.
• Pregnant women with HIV receive HIV medicines during pregnancy and childbirth to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In some situations a woman with HIV may have a scheduled cesarean delivery (also called a C-section) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
• Babies born to women with HIV receive HIV medicine for six weeks after birth. The HIV medicine reduces the risk of infection from HIV that may have entered a baby’s body during childbirth.
• Because HIV can be transmitted in breast milk, women with HIV living in the United States should not breastfeed their babies. In the United States, baby formula is a safe and healthy alternative to breast milk.

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